Gerald Martin in his work Journeys
Through the Labyrinth: Latin American Fiction in the Twentieth
Century (London: Verso, 1989), writes that 'it is arguable
that [Fuentes] is the vertebral figure within the entire
"boom" of the Latin American novel' (260).
Part of the problem being that Irish
authors were for so long subsumed under the rubric of British authors.
 Modernism and modernist are tricky terms
to begin with, but Modernismo in Spanish literature,
particularly poetry, is associated with Nicaraguan poet Rubén
Darío (1867-1916) who ushers in formal, French Parnassian and
Symbolist rhythms and images in Spanish language poetry.
Modernism in the European sense as defined by Ricardo
Quinones, Malcolm Bradbury and James McFarlane pertains to the
Boom writers and even Jorge Luis Borges' earlier poetry, and
certainly his short stories. See Quinones's Mapping
Literary Modernism: Time and Development (Princeton:
Princeton UP, 1985), and Modernism: A Guide to European
Literature: 1890-1930 (London: Penguin, 1976, 1991); and
finally Gerald Martin's work Journeys Through the
Labyrinth: Latin American Fiction in the Twentieth Century
(London: Verso, 1989), where he deftly handles the term in
relation to Latin American poetry and prose).
 See the text 'Joyce's Influence on
Borges: Fiction, Ficciones' (unpublished, David Vela).
 It is interesting that Samuel Beckett
translated with Alfred Perón the Anna Livia Plurabelle
section from Finnegans Wake in 1931. Borges and Beckett
share literary influences, including Joyce, and as with
Fuentes, are polyglots who could write in more than one
language. (See Pascale Casanova's pellucid work Beckett
l'abstracteur: Anatomie d'une revolution littéraire, (Paris: Editions Seuil,
1997), p. 58.)
Neruda’s Canto General,
The Poetics of Betrayal.' Canto
General. Trans. Jack Schmitt (Berkeley: University
of California Press, 1991). Professor González Echevarría’s work has
been immensely helpful to me over the years. While I did not
study with him at Yale (I was there from 1986-1990), his work
helped immensely in my own studies of Latin American authors,
independent, for I was an English major, and aided by
him and by people such as Master Robin Winks of Berkeley
College - an Irish philosopher’s inspired colleague and friend
of the Americas, Bishop George Berkeley.
 T.S. Eliot is audible in both authors
diverse works. Paz refined ideas in Spanish and related to
French symbolist and surreal poets, influencing Spanish
language poetry in the process. Chilean poet Pablo Neruda also
read the American poet and borrowed a great deal during the
1930s from Eliot's poetry. Paz is the Mexican heir to Eliot in
Spanish, for he was the quintessential philosopher, poet and
essayist in Mexico for many years. Carlos Fuentes, novelist,
sometimes playwright, short story writer, journalist and
political commentator, would 'give all of his books for one
line of Eliot, Yeats or Pound' (204, 'La Comedia Mexicana de
Carlos Fuentes'. La Historia Cuenta Mexico, D.F.:
Tusquets Editores, 1998. pp. 187-219). Why go to another
language for influence? In T.S. Eliot's essay 'Yeats' he
states: 'A very young man, who is himself stirred to write, is
not primarily critical or even widely appreciative. He is
looking for masters who will elicit his consciousness of what
he wants to say himself, of the kind of poetry that is in him
to write. … The kind of poetry that I needed, to teach me the
use of my own voice, did not exist in English at all; it was
only to be found in French' (248, 'Yeats' The Selected
Prose of T.S. Eliot, ed. and introduced by Frank Kermode. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1975). The same holds
true for Borges, Fuentes, and for Neruda: the kind of poetry
and prose they needed to teach them their own voices was not
in Spanish, but in English - and the writers who share the
greater degree of influence on them are Irish. Samuel Beckett
is the writer who embodies this borrowing most explicitly
by writing in French itself.
 Piedra de sol.
Mexico: Tezontle, 1957.
 La región más transparente
Mexico: Letras Mexicanas, 1958.
 First published in The
Dial, 1923. Taken
from Selected Prose of T.S. Eliot ed. and introduction
by Frank Kermode. New York: (HBJ) Farrar Straus & Giroux,
Joyce and Becket: The Stoic Comedians (Boston: Beacon
Press, 1962), p. 48. Kenner, who is the fines Becket scholar,
composed these essays originally as lectures. Illuminating,
humourous and dead-on, they bear reading if one is interested
in literature in general, and Joyce, Beckett and Flaubert,
elided and slightly imperfect sonnet, 'Leda and the Swan' is
just one example. I have compared the imagery of this poem
with Neruda's 'El cóndor.' For plays, see Yeats Purgartory
as an example.
 The term 'el Boom' was coined by Emir
Rodríguez Monegal, Uruguayan, and professor of literature at
Yale during the 1970s and early 1980s. Rodríguez Monegal noted
that an extraordinary number of highly original works in prose
were being produced in the 1960s and 1970s by a handful of
Latin American novelists and short story writers, all literary
descendants of Jorge Luis Borges (1899-1986), the Argentine
short story writer, essayist and poet. The principal Boom
writers are Carlos Fuentes (b.1928), Gabriel García Márquez
(b.1928), Mario Vargas Llosa (b.1936), Julio Cortázar
(1914-1984), José Donoso (1924-1996), and Alejo Carpentier
(1904-1979). Notably they hail from Mexico, Colombia, Peru, Argentina, Chile and Cuba.
 Two of the five, Julio Cortázar and
José Donoso, are dead.
 Terra Nostra, originally
published in 1975, (Mexico: Editorial Joaquin Mortiz, S.A.
Grupo Editorial Planeta,) translated by Margaret Sayers Peden
and published in 1976 (New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux) with
a sterling afterword by Fuentes's dear amigo Milan
Kundera, undeniably borrows from Joyce's genius in a Latin
guise. Fuentes adopts a medieval voice, demanding from his
reader an intense scrutiny and attention span, for sentences
sometimes run for pages. Though Fuentes in this novel takes a
more historical approach - a sort of linear approach - his
ultimate structure is eternal return, elliptical time, Vico
and Joyce. He later utilises the Mexican indigenous sense of
time in his novels, overlaying the European Spanish and French
cultural influences on Mexico with his earlier ideas about
time and humanity in works such as Aura and short
stories such as 'Chac Mool' and the surreal or magical
realist 'Por boca de los dioses'. One of Fuentes's more intensely
syncretic stories, illustrates, as James Joyce does, the
supremacy of elliptical time over a falsely 'modern' linear
time: 'Tlactocatzine, del Jardín de Flandes' from the
collection Burnt Water - Agua quemada is noteworthy.
 Cristóbal Nonato Fondo de
Cultura Económica, Mexico, D.F., 1987. Where the Air is
Clear, published originally as La Región Más
Transparente, Mexico: Letras Mexicanas, 1958; trans. Sam
Hileman, New York, Farrar Straus and Giroux, 1960; Cambio
de Piel. Mexico: Joaquín Mortiz, S.A., 1967; trans. Sam
Hileman. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1968.
 Seer Carlos Fuentes's short piece on
narrative and the novel Cervantes, o la crítica le la
Joaquín Mortiz, 1976.
 See also Fuentes's historical study of
Spain and the Americas The Buried Mirror (El Espejo
Enterrado) New York, Houghton 1992 (Mexico City: Fondo de
Cultura Economica, 1992). Fuentes writes of his interest in
both Vico and Joyce, and as Joyce did, read Giambattista
Vico's work in Italian. See also Cervantes, o la crítica de
Vargas Llosa is the master of this, and Fuentes has praised
the younger author for his technical brilliance.
Richard. James Joyce.
1959 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1982), revised edition.
 Page 527 of the fiftieth anniversary
edition of La región más transparente (Mexico City:
Alfaguara, 1998). The letters at the end of the text between
Fuentes and Cortázar are illuminating. My translation.
 Fuentes acknowledges explicitly and
implicitly in his literature and essays the positive
influences of Spain and France.
I am acknowledging the rich and literary influences of Ireland. The connections between
and France are complex, but resulted in many brilliant things, including
literary and cultural creations.
 See Roberto González Echevarría's 'The
Politics of Betrayal'. 1991. (Introduction to Canto General,
Trans. Jack Schmidt, Berkeley, UC Press, 1993).
 Gerald Martin, one of the first to
recognise James Joyce's monumental influence on Latin American
authors. From his book Journeys Through the Labyrinth:
Latin American Fiction in the Twentieth Century (London,
Verso, 1989), p. 260.
 Mario Vargas Llosa fits into this
category. See his review in the fine work La Verdad de las
Mentiras, (Madrid: Alfaguara, 2002) - The Truth of the
Lies - in which he reviews twentieth century authors, and
where Vargas Llosa surprisingly chooses to review Dubliners
over Joyce's other works. I have neglected a few of the
Caribbean writers, namely the Cubans, but only for lack of
space. Notably, the Brazilian authors are especially attuned
to calembours and Joyce's work, but for the sake of space and
economy here I cannot address so delightful a group of
authors. I shall address Ireland and Cuba in a subsequent
text. Guillermo Cabrera Infante (novelist), Heberto Padilla
(poet) and the essayist, critic and novelist Alejo Carpentier
bear noting. See p. 432, Emanuel Carballo: 19 Protagonistas
de la literatura Mexicana
del siglo XX,
Mexico: Empresas Editoriales, S.A., 1965. (Nineteen
Protagonists of Twentieth-Century Mexican literature).
Vargas Llosa sits on the board that oversees the 'purity' of
the Spanish language; in fact more Latin American than Spanish
authors do. E. Anderson Imbert's two volumes, Historia de
la Literatura Hispanoamericana (Mexico: Fondo de Cultura
Económica, 1954; reprinted 1970, and 1974 as Volumes I and
II, respectively) grant hints of the Irish influences on a
number of Latin American authors.
 Neruda was exiled during the 1950s to
the Island of Capri; Fuentes and Mario Vargas Llosa live in
London (self-exile, like James Joyce and Samuel Beckett), and
Julio Cortázar lived most of his life in Paris. He, like Samuel
Beckett, is buried in the Cimetière Montparnasse.
 Carlos Fuentes: Territorios del
Tiempo: Antología de entrevistas.(Mexico: Fondo de Cultura
Económica, 1999), p. 79. My translation.