Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington
(1769 -1852), was a British Army soldier and statesman,
and is considered one of the leading military and
political figures of the first half of the nineteenth
The Irish Football Union (IFU) was formed in Dublin in
1874 and in 1875 the Northern Football Union (NFU) was
founded in Belfast. The two bodies agreed to merge in 1879
to form the Irish Rugby Football Union (IRFU).
The Royal Dublin Society (RDS) was founded in 1731 to
promote and develop agriculture, arts, science and
industry. The society’s main premises and main arena in
Ballsbridge, a suburb of Dublin, hosts an annual
international showjumping week entitled ‘Dublin Horse
Show, culminating in the Aga Khan Showjumping final.
Pitch and Toss is a simple coin game, known by this name
in Britain since at least the eighteenth century.
The War of the Triple Alliance, also known as the
Paraguayan War, was fought from 1864 to 1870; it was
fought between Paraguay and the allied countries of
Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay.
An idiom which is used especially in England and Wales
meaning something is unfair.
Initially the British used North America as a penal
colony, the most famous being the Province of Georgia.
Convicts were transported by private sector merchants and
auctioned off to plantation owners upon arrival in the
colonies. After the American independence in 1779 this
avenue was closed off. Australia was to later take its
place with penal colonies such as Norfolk Island, Van
Diemen’s Land and New South Wales.
When someone commended him as a famous Irishman, he
replied ‘Being born in a stable does not make one a
Daniel O’Connell (1775 -1847) was Ireland’s predominant
political leader in the first half of the nineteenth
century. He campaigned for Catholic Emancipation - the
right for Catholics to sit in the British parliament in
Westminster, which was achieved in 1829 through the Roman
Catholic Relief Act. In the 1830s Daniel O’Connell became
a major figure in the House of Commons and was active in
the campaigns for prison and law reform, free trade, the
abolition of slavery and Jewish emancipation.
An idiom which means that lawyer can always find for their
clients some loophole in the law.
José Pedro Algorta, Alfredo 'Pancho' Delgado, Daniel
Fernández, Roberto 'Bobby' François, Roy Harley, José Luis
'Coche' Inciarte, Álvaro Mangino, Javier Methol, Carlos 'Carlitos'
Páez, Ramon 'Moncho' Sabella, Adolfo 'Fito' Strauch,
Eduardo Strauch, Antonio 'Tintin' Vizíntin and Gustavo
‘Tero’ is the Spanish for Southern Lapwing (Vanellus
chilensis). It is the national bird of Uruguay.
Argentine Rugby Union (UAR) website (http://www.uar.com.ar)
- accessed 8 February 2008
- Becco, Horacio and Carlos Cálcena, El Gaucho:
Documentación - Iconografia (Buenos Aires: Editorial
Plus Ultra, 1978)
- Catholic Encyclopaedia
1912 (New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912)
- Cullen, W.B and A.L. O’ Toole,
Steadfast in Giving: Edmund Ignatius Rice (Dublin:
Veritas Publications, 1979)
- Encyclopaedia Britannica (London:
Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2006)
- International Rugby Board (IRB) website
(http://www.irb.com) - accessed 8 February 2008
- Montevideo Cricket Club website ( http://www.montevideocricketclub.com)
- accessed 8 February 2008
- Moorehead, Alan,
Darwin and the Beagle
(London: Harper & Row, 1969)
- Nahum, Benjamín, Breve Historia del Uruguay
Independiente (Montevideo: Banda Oriental, 1999)
- National Geographic:
Adventure (Washington DC: National Geographic, April
- Parrado, Nando,
Miracle in the
Andes: 72 Days on the Mountain and My Long
(New York: Crown, 2006)
- Reid, Piers Paul, Alive (New York:
Book-of-the-Month Club, 2000)
- Richards, Huw A
Game for Hooligans: The History of
(Edinburgh: Mainstream Publishing, 2007)
- Uruguayan Rugby Union (URU) website - (
http://www.uru.org.uy) accessed 8 February 2008
- Vierci, Pablo, Ad Astra; 50 Años del Stella
Maris (Montevideo: 2005)